Topic 1. North America: geography and map skills Supporting Question: What are the physical features and nations of North America? 1. On a physical map of North America, use cardinal directions, map scales, key/legend (symbols for mountains, rivers, deserts, lakes, cities), and title to locate and identify important physical features (e.g., Mississippi and Rio Grande Rivers, Great Lakes, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Gulf of Mexico, Hudson’s Bay, Appalachian Mountains, Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre, the Great Basin, Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Deserts, the Yucatan Peninsula, the Caribbean Sea). Clarification Statement: Note that the grade 4 Earth and Space Science standards of the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for Science and Technology/Engineering address topics such as landforms, landscapes, erosion, volcanoes, earthquake epicenters, and oceans, and natural events such as blizzards, earthquakes, and floods. 2. On a political map of North America, locate Canada and its provinces, Mexico and its states, the nations of the Caribbean, and the United States of America and its states; explain the meaning of the terms continent, country, nation, county, state, province, and city. 3. Research, analyze, and convey information about Canada or Mexico by consulting maps, atlases, encyclopedias, digital information and satellite images, photographs, or news articles; organizing materials, and making an oral or written presentation about topics such as the peoples, population size, languages, forms of government, major cities, environment, natural resources, industries, and national landmarks. Topic 2. Ancient civilizations of North America Supporting Question: How do archaeologists develop theories about ancient migrations? 1. Evaluate competing theories about the origins of people in North America (e.g., theories that people migrated across a land bridge that connected present-day Siberia to Alaska or theories that they came by a maritime route) and evidence for dating the existence of early populations in North America to about 15,000 years ago.25 2. Using maps of historic Native Peoples’ culture regions of North America and photographs, identify archaeological evidence of some of the characteristics of major civilizations of this period (e.g., stone tools, ceramics, mound-building, cliff dwellings). Clarification statement: Students should understand that the North American continent has been inhabited for thousands of years, and that large and highly organized ancient societies, such as the Inuit, Hopewell, Adena, Hohokam, Puebloan, Mississippian, Iroquois, Maya, Olmec, and Toltec, flourished long before Europeans arrived in North America. 3. Explain how archaeologists conduct research (e.g., by participating in excavations, studying artifacts and organic remains, climate and astronomical data, and collaborating with other 25 Students might consult sites such as National Park Service Bering Land Bridge site for theories about early migration into North America. (see also https://www.nps.gov/bela/learn/historyculture/bering-land-bridge.htm) Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for History and Social Science 63 scholars) to develop theories about migration, settlement patterns, and cultures in prehistoric periods. 4. Give examples of some archaeological sites of Native Peoples in North America that are preserved as national or state monuments, parks, or international heritage sites (e.g., Teotihuacan in Mexico, Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado, Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site in Illinois, Chaco Culture National Historic Park in New Mexico) and explain their importance in presenting a comprehensive history of Americans and American life. Topic 3. Early European exploration and conquest Supporting Question: What were the reasons for European voyages across the Atlantic Ocean? 1. Explain how historians studying the European voyages to the Americas use archaeological evidence, maps, illustrations, and texts produced in Europe at the time, and that all of these materials are called primary sources. 26 2. Explain who the Vikings were and describe evidence of their early encounters with Native Peoples along the North American Atlantic coast. 3. Trace on a map European explorations of North America and the Caribbean Islands in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., voyages of Vasco Nun͂es de Balboa, Jacques Cartier, Cristobal Colon [Christopher Columbus], Ferdinand Magellan, Juan Ponce De Leon, Amerigo Vespucci, Hernán Cortés), evaluate the reasons for the voyages, noting that they were part of an effort by European nations to expand their empires, find new routes for trade with Asia, new opportunities for colonization, and new natural resources; make a timeline of their landings and conquests. 27 Topic 4. The expansion of the United States over time and its regions today Supporting Question: How has the environment shaped the development of each region? 1. Describe how the construction of canals, roads, and railways in the 19th century helped the United States to expand westward. 2. Give examples of some of the ways the United States acquired new states (beyond the 13 original states) and additional territories between 1791 and 1898, including purchasing land called the Louisiana Territory from France, adding territory in the Southwest as a result of war with Mexico, settling a treaty with Britain to gain land called the Oregon Territory in the Northwest, purchasing Alaska from Russia, annexing Hawaii, and adding territories such as Puerto Rico as a result of a war with Spain. 3. Compare different reasons why men and women who lived in the Eastern part of the United 26 For example, students examine a variety of maps from the 1500s and draw conclusions about how maps of the period conveyed what was known about the world as a result of exploration. (see also https://www.nps.gov/bela/learn/historyculture/bering-land-bridge.htm) 27 For the history of the United States holiday Columbus Day, in places celebrated as Indigenous Peoples’ Day, see the Supplement, Resources for History and Social Science, Section III. 28 The Framework follows the National Geographic Society’s division of states into regions. Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for History and Social Science 64 States wanted to move West in the 19th century, and describe aspects of pioneer life on the frontier (e.g., wagon train journeys on the Oregon and Santa Fe Trails, and settlements in the western territories). 4. Explain that many different groups of people immigrated to the United States from other places voluntarily and some were brought to the United States against their will (as in the case of people of Africa). 5. Show understanding that in the middle of the 19th century, the people of the United States were deeply divided over the question of slavery and its expansion into newly settled parts of the West, which led to the Civil War from 1861 to 1865. Clarification Statement: This brief explanation of westward expansion sets the stage for studying regions and is intended to be very introductory. Students will learn more about the causes and consequences of the Civil War in grade 5 and will revisit the topics of sectional differences among states and the concept of Manifest Destiny in United States History I and II.